Physics
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THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS 
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01  
Physics: An Introduction  
Physical Quantities and Units  
Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures  
Approximation  
KINEMATICS 
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02  
Displacement  
Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems  
Time, Velocity, and Speed  
Acceleration  
Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension  
ProblemSolving Basics for OneDimensional Kinematics  
Falling Objects  
Graphical Analysis of OneDimensional Motion  
TWODIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 
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03  Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction  
Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods  
Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods  
Projectile Motion  
Addition of Velocities  
DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 
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Development of Force Concept  
Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia  
Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System  
Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces  
Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces  
ProblemSolving Strategies  
Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion  
Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction  
FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON’S LAWS: FRICTION, DRAG, AND ELASTICITY 
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05  Friction  
Drag Forces  
Elasticity: Stress and Strain  
UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 
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06  Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity  
Centripetal Acceleration  
Centripetal Force  
Fictitious Forces and Noninertial Frames: The Coriolis Force  
Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation  
Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity  
WORK, ENERGY, AND ENERGY RESOURCES 
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Work: The Scientific Definition  
Kinetic Energy and the WorkEnergy Theorem  
Gravitational Potential Energy  
Conservative Forces and Potential Energy  
Conservation of Energy  
Power  
Work, Energy, and Power in Humans  
World Energy Use  
LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 
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08  Linear Momentum and Force  
Impulse  
Conservation of Momentum  
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension  
Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension  
Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions  
Introduction to Rocket Propulsion  
STATICS AND TORQUE 
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09  The First Condition for Equilibrium  
The Second Condition for Equilibrium  
Stability  
Applications of Statics, Including ProblemSolving Strategies  
Simple Machines  
Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints  
ROTATIONAL MOTION AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM 
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Angular Acceleration  
Kinematics of Rotational Motion  
Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia  
Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited  
Angular Momentum and Its Conservation  
Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions  
Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum  
FLUID STATICS 
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11  What Is a Fluid?  
Density  
Pressure  
Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid  
Pascal’s Principl  
Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement  
Archimedes’ Principle  
Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action  
Pressures in the Body  
FLUID DYNAMICS AND ITS BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS 
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12  Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity  
Bernoulli’s Equation  
The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation  
Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law  
The Onset of Turbulence  
Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid  
Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes  
TEMPERATURE, KINETIC THEORY, AND THE GAS LAWS 
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Temperature  
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids  
The Ideal Gas Law  
Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature  
Phase Changes  
Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling  
HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS 
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14  Heat  
Temperature Change and Heat Capacity  
Phase Change and Latent Heat  
Heat Transfer Methods  
Conduction  
Convection  
Radiation  
THERMODYNAMICS 
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15  The First Law of Thermodynamics  
The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes  
Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency  
Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated  
Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators  
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy  
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation  
OSCILLATORY MOTION AND WAVES 
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Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited  
Period and Frequency in Oscillations  
Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion  
The Simple Pendulum  
Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator  
Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion  
Damped Harmonic Motion  
Forced Oscillations and Resonance  
Waves  
Superposition and Interference  
Energy in Waves: Intensity  
PHYSICS OF HEARING 
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17  Sound  
Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength  
Sound Intensity and Sound Leve  
Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms  
Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns  
Hearing  
Ultrasound  
ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD 
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18  Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge  
Conductors and Insulators  
Coulomb’s Law  
Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited  
Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges  
Electric Forces in Biology  
Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium  
Applications of Electrostatics  
ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND ELECTRIC FIELD 
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19  Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference  
Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field  
Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge  
Equipotential Lines  
Capacitors and Dielectrics  
Capacitors in Series and Parallel  
Energy Stored in Capacitors  
ELECTRIC CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND OHM’S LAW 
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Current  
Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits  
Resistance and Resistivity  
Electric Power and Energy  
Electric Hazards and the Human Body  
Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms  
CIRCUITS AND DC INSTRUMENTS 
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21  Resistors in Series and Parallel  
Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage  
Kirchhoff’s Rules  
DC Voltmeters and Ammeters  
Null Measurements  
DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors  
MAGNETISM 
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Magnets  
Ferromagnets and Electromagnets  
Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines  
Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field  
Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications  
The Hall Effect  
Magnetic Force on a CurrentCarrying Conductor  
Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters  
Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law  
Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors  
More Applications of Magnetism  
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION, AC CIRCUITS, AND ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIES 
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Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux  
Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law  
Motional Emf  
Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping  
Electric Generators  
Back Emf  
Transformers  
Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices  
Inductance  
RL Circuits  
Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive  
RLC Series AC Circuits  
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 
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Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed  
Production of Electromagnetic Waves  
The Electromagnetic Spectrum  
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves  
GEOMETRIC OPTICS 
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The Ray Aspect of Light  
The Law of Reflection  
The Law of Refraction  
Total Internal Reflection  
Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms  
Image Formation by Lenses  
VISION AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 
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Physics of the Eye  
Vision Correction  
Color and Color Vision  
Microscopes  
Telescopes  
Aberrations  
WAVE OPTICS 
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The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference  
Huygens’s Principle: Diffraction  
Young’s Double Slit Experiment  
Multiple Slit Diffraction  
Single Slit Diffraction  
Thin Film Interference  
Polarization  
*Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light  
SPECIAL RELATIVITY 
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Einstein’s Postulates  
Simultaneity And Time Dilation  
Length Contraction  
Relativistic Addition of Velocities  
Simultaneity And Time Dilation  
Relativistic Momentum  
INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS 
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Quantization of Energy  
The Photoelectric Effect  
Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum  
Photon Momentum  
The ParticleWave Duality  
Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle  
The ParticleWave Duality Reviewed  
ATOMIC PHYSICS 
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Discovery of the Atom  
Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei  
Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom  
X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications  
Applications of Atomic Excitations and DeExcitations  
The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization  
Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization  
Quantum Numbers and Rules  
The Pauli Exclusion Principle  
RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS 
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Nuclear Radioactivity  
Radiation Detection and Detectors  
Substructure of the Nucleus  
Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws  
HalfLife and Activity  
Binding Energy  
Tunneling  
MEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS 
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Medical Imaging and Diagnostics  
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation  
Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation  
Food Irradiation  
Fission  
Nuclear Weapons  
PARTICLE PHYSICS 
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The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited  
The Four Basic Forces  
Accelerators Create Matter from Energy  
Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws  
Quarks: Is That All There Is?  
GUTs: The Unification of Forces  
FRONTIERS OF PHYSICS 
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Cosmology and Particle Physics  
General Relativity and Quantum Gravity  
Superstrings  
Dark Matter and Closure  
Complexity and Chaos  
Hightemperature Superconductors  
Some Questions We Know to Ask 